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Les Femmes Cochères à Paris (ELD)
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Les Femmes Cocher / 156
Picture (left): Photo: Mme. Dufaut.
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Among the following sources Nicholas Papayanis and Vance Thompson provided background on the cab trade in Paris while most of the information on the femmes cocher came from the New York Times articles from 1907 and 1908. References to the London cab trade are mostly from G.N. Georgano.
- Norman Beattie, "The Cab Trade in Winnipeg, 1870-1910", Urban History Review, XXVII no. 1 (October, 1998) pp. 36-52. See note 4, pp. 49-50 for the protest against the proposed minimum speed of seven mph. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 16)
- John Fisher, The World of the Forsytes (London: Secker & Warburg, 1976). See p. 142 for the Baedeker reference about tipping London taxi drivers to go faster than four mph. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 16)
- G.N. Georgano, A History of the London Taxicab (N.Y.: Drake, 1973). See pp. 69-70 for Sheila O'Neill (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 4)
- André Guillerme and Sabine Barles, Histoire, statuts et administration de la voirie urbaine (Paris: Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Centre d'histoire des techniques [no date]). Accessible online at www.cnam.fr/cdht/documents/rgra.rtf. See page 14 for wood block paving in Paris and the English experiments with rubber paving. (A Cocher Miscellany, 10)
- Manitoba Free Press, October 15, 1910, Auto Section p. 1. "Natalie White, the only woman 'chauffeuse' in New York" (photo). (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 4)
- New York Times, March 23, 1907, p. 5 col. 3. "Women cabbies a big hit."
- New York Times, Oct. 13, 1907, p. C4. "A Paris horror." Report of Mme. Lutgen's charges of cruelty to cab horses. (Cab Horses, 5)
- New York Times, Jan. 12, 1908, part 3, p. 2, col. 6. "Fewer woman cabbies."
- New York Times, Sept. 19, 1909, part 3, p. 2, col. 6. "Woman drives Paris taxicab." Report of the 1909 sighting of woman taxi driver in Paris. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 1)
- New York Times, Dec. 26, 1913, p. 1. "Countess a nurse." Report of Mme. Lutgen's later career. (Mme. Lutgen, 5)
- Nicholas Papayanis, Horse-Drawn Cabs and Omnibuses in Paris (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1996).
- Cyril Posthumus, The Story of Veteran & Vintage Cars (London: Hamlyn, 1977). See page 11 for Berta Benz's 1888 motor trip. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 3)
- L.J. Ransone, Good Form in England, by an American Resident in the United Kingdom. (N.Y.: Appleton, 1888). See p. 278 for the quote about tipping cab drivers. (Mme. Moser, 8)
- Anna Sewell, Black Beauty (London: J.M. Dent, 1969 c1950). See pp. 178-179 (Chapter 34) for the quotation about overworked horses. (Cab Horses, 7)
- Vance Thompson, "The Paris Cabman", Outing, XLII no. 3 (December, 1903), pp. 241-251. Text and photos accessible online at www.taxi-l.org/vt/vt2.htm.
- Winnipeg Telegram, April 30, 1910, sec. 2, p. 1. "Negress is it as auto driver." Photo of Senagalese woman driver sponsored by Paris suffragettes. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 21)
- Alexander Woollcott, Enchanted Aisles (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1924). Woollcott's ride with a woman driver is described in "The Paris taxi driver considered as an artist," pp. 88-101. (Les Femmes Chauffeur, 2)